Here the simple file alarm circuit based timer ID NE555. The works is simple, the lamp give light to the LDR (Light Depending Resistor) as light sensor. When the light from the lamp covered with smoke then the LDR will change its resistance value and then activated the alarm.
The IC1 (NE555) is configured as a free running oscillator at audio frequency. The transistors T1 and T2 drive IC1. The output(pin 3) of IC1 is couples to base of transistor T3(SL100), which drives the speaker to generate alarm sound. The frequency of NE555 depends on the values of resistances R5 and R6 and capacitance C2.When thermistor becomes hot, it gives a low-resistance path for the positive voltage to the base of transistor T1 through diode D1 and resistance R2.
Capacitor C1 charges up to the positive supply voltage and increases the the time for which the alarm is ON. The larger the value of C1, the larger the positive bias applied to the base of transistor T1 (BC548). As the collector of T1 is coupled to the base of transistor T2, the transistor T2 provides a positive voltage to pin 4 (reset) of IC1 (NE555). Resistor R4 is selected s0 that NE555 keeps inactive in the absence of the positive voltage. Diode D1 stops discharging of capacitor C1 when the thermistor is in connection with the positive supply voltage cools out and provides a high resistance path. It also inhibits the forward biasing of transistor T1.