Audio Line Driver

Audio line driver schematics:
Audio Line Driver circuit diagram

This preamplifier has a low output impedance, and is designed to drive long cables, allowing you to listen to a remote music source without having to buy expensive screened cables. The very low output impedance of around 16 ohms at 1KHz, makes it possible to use ordinary bell wire, loudspeaker or alarm cable for connection. The preamplifier must be placed near the remote music source, for example a CD player. The cable is then run to a remote location where you want to listen. The output of this preamp has a gain of slightly less than one, so an external amplifier must be used to drive loudspeakers.

Tone Control Circuit

Based on the classic Baxendall tone control circuit, this provides a maximum cut and boost of around 10dB at 10K and 50Hz.

Tone Control Circuit diagram

ECM Mic Preamplifier

Here a microphone amplifier schematics that may be used with either Electret Condenser Microphone (ECM) inserts or dynamic inserts, made with discrete components:
ECM Mic Preamplifier circuit diagram

2 Watt Audio Amplifier

A 2 Watt audio amplifier made from discrete components.

2 Watt Audio Amplifier circuit diagram

The amplifier operates in Class AB mode; the single 470R preset resistor, PR1 controls the quiescent current flowing through the BD139/140 complimentary output transistors. Adjustment here, is a trade-off between low distortion and low quiescent current. Typically, under quiescent conditions, current is about 15 mA rising to 150 mA with a 50 mV input signal. The frequency response is shown below and is flat from 20Hz to 100kHz:

12Volt to 9Volt DC Converter

12Volt to 9Volt DC Converter circuit diagram

Parts List:
R1 = 560 ohm
C1 = 1000uF/40V, Electrolytic
C2 = 10uF/25V, Electrolytic
C3 = 330nF, Ceramic
Z1 = 9.1V, 1watt zener
Q1 = ECG184, NTE184

To get a more precise output voltage, replace zener diode Z1 with 10V and R1 with a 1Kilo ohm potentiometer. A Coolrib for Q1 is optional but highly recommended. You can replace Q1 for a more robust type to get more output amps depending on your requirements. Simple circuit to power your 9 volt cassette recorder and other stuff.

Battery 9V Voltage Doubler

electronic circuit diagram

MAX1044 is a charge pump converter - it uses a capacitor as a "bucket" to pump charge from one place to another. Normally, there is a capacitor connected from pin 2 of the 1044 to pin 4. This capacitor is charged between +9V and ground, and then switched in parallel with a capacitor from pin 5 to ground in a way that makes a negative voltage on the second cap.

In this UPverting use, the 1044 still switches pin 2 between +9V and ground just as it would for a voltage inverter. However, we ignore the pin 4 and 5 connections that would make an inverter from it. Instead, we connect two capacitors and diodes as shown (D1, 2, and C1, 2). The voltage on pin 2 of the 1044 is switched from +9V to ground. When it switches to ground, C1 fills with voltage through D1. When it then switches to +9, it pulls the negative terminal of C1 up to +9V. D1 now blocks any flow of current back into the battery, so the charge in C1 flows through D2 into C2. So at C2, we now get almost 18V!

There's more. If we add another two diodes and capacitors (D3, D4 and C3, C4), we can add another 9V to it, as C3 charges to +18 through D3 when pin 2 is at ground, and is pulled up to +25 (+27 minus the voltage drops of the diodes) when pin 2 goes high. We can do it again with D5, D6 and C5, C6 to get +33V. The limit on all this is the losses in the diode voltages. Each time we add a section, we add two more diode drops that we can't take advantage of to charge capacitors. But +33 is not bad for a single 9V battery!

If you build this, you MUST take notice of the voltages on the capacitors. The caps can all be the same value, but C1, C2 need to be 25V units, C3, 4, 5, and 6 can be 35V units, and C5 and C6 might need to be 50V unit just for some safety margin. 1N400x diodes work and are cheap, but the losses are higher than they really need to be. For higher performance and lower losses, it's better to use something like the 1N5817 schottky diodes for low losses. But both will work.

This charge pumping is a very efficient way to convert voltages. The only power lost is that power dissipated in the resistances of the switches inside the 1044 and the series resistance of the capacitors and diodes, as well as the power to run the internal oscillator that flips the switches when needed.

All by itself, the 1044 runs at about 7-10kHz, so there will be ripple of that amount on the C2 output and on the +9V output from the battery as well. Audio equipment that uses this voltage could have a "whine" audible if you're not careful. However, the 1044 has a frequency boost feature. If you connect pin 1 to the power supply (shown by the little open switch) then the oscillator frequency goes up by about 6:1. The oscillator then works well above the audio region. Any whine is then going to be inaudible.

Unregulated Power Supply

This page come from, show you about circuit of un regulated powersupply:

A basic full wave rectified power supply is shown below. The transformer is chosen according to the desired load. For example, if the load requires 12V at 1amp current, then a 12V, 1 amp rated transformer would do. However, when designing power supplies or most electronic circuits, you should always plan for a worst case scenario. With this in mind, for a load current of 1 amp a wise choice would be a transformer with a secondary current rating of 1.5 amp or even 2 amps. Allowing for a load of 50% higher than the needed value is a good rule of thumb. The primary winding is always matched to the value of the local electricity supply.

Unregulated Power Supply circuit diagram

An approximate formula for determining the amount of ripple on an unregulated supply is:

Vrip = Iload * 0.007 / C

where I load is the DC current measured through the load in amps and C is the value of the capacitor in uF.The diagram below shows an example with a load current of 0.1 amp and a smoothing capacitor value of 1000uF.

electronic circuit diagram

The calculated value of ripple is (0.1 * 0.007) / 1000e-6 = 0.7 volts or 700mV. The value of peak-peak ripple measured from the graph is 628mV. Therefor, the equation is a good rule of thumb guide for choosing the correct value for a smoothing capacitor in a power supply.