Flashy christmas light

electronic circuit diagram

This simple and inexpensive circuit built around a popular CMOS hex inverter IC CD4069UB offers four sequential switching outputs that may be used to control 200 LEDs (50 LEDs per channel), driven directly from mains supply. Input supply of 230V AC is rectified by the bridge rectifiers D1 to D4. After fullwave rectification, the average output voltage of about 6 volts is obtained across the filter comprising capacitor C1 and resistor R5.

LED light flasher

LED light flasher circuit diagram
This is a very basic circuit for flashing one or more LEDS and also to alternately flash one or more LEDs.

It uses a 555 timer setup as an astable multivibrator with a variable frequency.
With the preset at its max. the flashing rate of the LED is about 1/2 a second. It can be increased by increasing the value of the capacitor from 10uF to a higher value. For example if it is increased to 22uF the flashing rate becomes 1 second.

Just a minute scoring board circuit

Just a minute scoring board circuit diagram
You can use this circuit for quiz contests wherein any participant who presses his button (switch) before the other contestants, gets the first chance to answer a question. The circuit given here permits up to eight contestants with each one allotted a distinct number (1 to 8). The display will show the number of the contestant pressing his button before the others. Simultaneously, a buzzer will also sound.

Gate Alarm Circuit

electronic circuit diagram
Image Description:
Figure 1 represents a cheap and simple Gate Alarm, that is intended to run off a small universal AC-DC power supply.

Figure 2 shows how an ordinary reed switch may be converted to close (a "normally closed" switch) when the gate is opened. A continuity tester makes the work easy. Note that many reed switches are delicate, and therefore wires which are soldered to the reed switch should not be flexed at all near the switch. Other types of switches, such as microswitches, may also be used.

Graphic Equalizer 3 Band

Graphic Equalizer 3 Band circuit diagram
Very simple and cheap 3 band Equlizer for your home made sound system :D

Vinyl Pre-Amplifier

This is old pre amplifier circuit, but still...this is very good and cheap analog circuit...
Vinyl Pre-Amplifier circuit diagram
1) A moving magnet pick-up cartridge is an inductive transducer that must be resistively damped and reactively tuned to optimise reproduction.
Hence I fitted a sub-miniature twin gang 500pF variable and screen earthed twin gang potentiometers directly to the input circuitry
It is only *after* you have actually used these input damping and tuning controls whilst music listening to optimise your own equipment line-up, that you can understand just how much mind distracting spin has been repeated about fractional 'dB' variation with respect to an ideal RIAA characteristic.
Cartridge to pre-amplifier matching has a much more significant effect upon reproduction than does the achievement of perfect RIAA equalisation !!!

(2) Another factor greatly affecting reproduction relates to NFB loop controlled gain stage interactions and terminations.
For example, it is possible to build a moving magnet stage using just one or two gain stages per channel, and they can measure near ideal under steady sinewave examination, but this cannot guarantee that they will actually sound good when coping with highly dynamic music waveforms. NFB loop controlled equalisation stages should be buffered at input as well as output. The input terminal of a stage that is called upon to output current not retaining a linear relationship with voltage at all frequencies, will itself not respond with amplitude linearly if fed at high impedance, and this is especially so with bipolar input circuitry.
(Stage interaction often arises, and this is why some power amplifier plus pre-amplifier combinations can reproduce less cleanly than expected.)
Interconnects are not the only cause of audible degradation, thus a separate additional NFB loop controlled line output driving stage that does not load previous circuitry whilst providing a lower output impedance can further improve rather than degrade the final sound by its own presence.

(3) The components used for upper and lower RIAA equalisation characteristics are better separated, as in this circuit.
Passive (non distorting) 750 ohm (or 2x 1k5 in //) plus 100nF close tolerance components not only perform the RIAA hf cut between stages three and four, but they also reduce higher audio frequency noise and distortion from the earlier stages.
Here the line driver stage is already operating at good input signal level with falling input input impedance as frequency increases, and the resulting improvement in sound reproduction becomes instantly recognisable.
Additionally, the uncompensated series feedback unity gain error seen on some other vinyl pre-amplifier circuits is automatically covered.

(4) The original RIAA characteristic was, *is*, sub-bass weak, with a low frequency roll-off that introduces notable bass phase distortion.
For this reason I extended the low frequency equalisation to 25Hz instead of 50Hz, with a switchable option for 'standard' reproduction.
Do not try to use the extended bass response for loud real-time playback (via a computer is okay) unless you have solid floors or your turntable is brick wall mounted.
The 22uF capacitors then introduce multi-pole passive roll-off below 20Hz to more sharply cut turntable and pressing rumbles.

(5) At high live playback levels the extended bass response can set up feedback via differentially energised room resonances. This was easily remedied by connecting the primary of a subminiature transistor radio output transformer between channels, thereby mono-ing the sub-bass without affecting other stereo reproduction. Thus this pre-amp offered a new method for bass feedback reduction that has minimal impact upon the overall bass reproduction level, yet which allows higher 'pop-party' sound levels in undamped rooms.

Don't just look at this circuit and think 'Yeah ?' or 'Sure ?' and say to yourself 'Look at all those capacitors !'.
This analogue pre-amp is a tested design providing not just both a cleaner and quieter background to the music we are meant to hear, but also an optimisable clarity of reproduction that few are likely to have heard before, or even imagined could ever have become a realisable experience.

Today there are many internally compensated audio integrated circuits to choose from, several offering fet input devices. Remotely power your construction with at least four 470uF or 1mF capacitors per 15V rail, and place it beside the tone arm with no more than two feet of screened interconnect.
Do please let me know how you can get on, and let me know which ICs performed well so that they can be mentioned here for other constructors.

MP3 Car Amplifier 150 Watts

MP3 Car Amplifier 150 Watts circuit diagram
This car amplifier schematics is quite simple and cheap for car audio system.
For complete tutorial and schematics, please go to this page

Amplifier 24 Watts Class A

This is very good and low cost Amplifier for your medium indoor sound system. A 24 Watt Class A Amplifier made from discrete semiconductors, built and tested by Marc Klynhans from South Africa.
electronic circuit diagram

Marc's website may be found at: http://mrcshobbies.blogspot.com

Simple Line Mixer and Patchbay

Here the finished circuit include the box:
Simple Line Mixer and Patchbay

And here the schematic diagram:
Simple Line Mixer and Patchbay circuit diagram

100 to 150 Watt Amp

Amplifier Schematics:
100 to 150 Watt Amp circuit diagram

Power Supply Schematics:
power supply circuit diagram

Peak Reading Audio Level Meter

electronic circuit diagram
This simple circuit will indicate peak audio response on an analogue meter, similar to a tape recorders meter. The circuit uses an opamp as a non inverting amplifier, but with one addition - a diode in the feedback loop. The circuit has a fast response time and slow decay time to indicate peak readings. The 1N4148 diode provides half wave rectification of the input signal, the dc output being smoothed by the 22u capacitor. the capacitor will charge to the peak value of the input waveform, and then discharge via the meter and 18k resistor. I used a meter with a FSD of 150uA, but any meter with a FSD in the range 50-250uA may be used. The discharge time is around a quarter of a second. Increase the 22uF cap for a longer discharge time, or omit altogether to make an instantaneous reading level meter.

This circuit will only work with a MOSFET type op-amp, bipolar types i.e. 741 and J-FET op-amps such as LF351 will not work in this circuit.

Hi-Fi Pre Amplifier

Hi-Fi Pre Amplifier circuit diagram
It has an exceptionally fast high frequency response, as demonstrated by applying an 100kHz squarewave to the input.

Doorphone Intercom

Doorphone Intercom circuit diagram
In this doorphone circuit, an 8 ohm speaker is used both as a microphone and also an output device. The BC109C stage amplifies in common base mode, giving good voltage gain , whilst providing a low impedance input to match the speaker. Self DC bias is used allowing for variations in transistor current gain. An LM386 is used in non-inverting mode as a power amplifier to boost voltage gain and drive the 8 ohm speaker. The 10k potentiometer acts as the volume control, and overall gain may be adjusted using the 5k preset. The double pole double throw switch, reverses the loudspeaker positions, so that one is used to talk and the other to listen. Manually operating the switch (from inside the house) allows two way communication.

Microphone for Computer

Microphone for Computer circuit diagram
This circuit was submitted by Lazar Pancic from Yugoslavia. The sound card for a PC generally has a microphone input, speaker output and sometimes line inputs and outputs. The mic input is designed for dynamic microphones only in impedance range of 200 to 600 ohms. Lazar has adapted the sound card to use a common electret microphone using this circuit. He has made a composite amplifier using two transistors. The BC413B operates in common emitter to give a slight boost to the mic signal. This is followed by an emitter follower stage using the BC547C. This is necessary as the mic and circuit and battery will be some distance from the sound card, the low output impedance of the circuit and screened cable ensuring a clean signal with minimum noise pickup.

6 Input Mixer Schematics

6 Input Mixer Schematics diagram
The mixer circuit below has 3 line inputs and 3 mic inputs. The mic inputs are suitable for low impedance 200-1000R dynamic microphones. An ECM or condenser mic can also be used, but must have bias applied via a series resistor. As with any mixer circuit, a slight loss is always introduced. The final summing amplifier has a gain of 2 or 6dB to overcome this. The Input line level should be around 200mV RMS. The mic inputs are amplified about 100 times or by 40dB, the total gain with the mixer is 46dB. The mic input is designed for microphones with outputs of about 2mV RMS at 1 meter. Most microphones meet this standard.

Audio Notch Meter

Audio Notch Meter circuit diagram
Nice notch meter for your audio device. At first glance this circuit looks fairly complex, but when broken down, can be divided into high pass and low pass filter sections followed by a summing amplifier with a gain of around 20 times. Supply rail voltage is +/- 9V DC. The controls may also be adjusted for use as a band stop (notch) filter or band pass filter.

8 Watt Amplifier

8 Watt Amplifier circuit diagram
Actually, the TDA2030 can deliver 20 watts of output power, but the output power reduced to about 8 watts to supply 10 watt speakers. Input sensitivity is 200mV. Higher input levels naturally will give greater output, but no distortion should be heard. The gain is set by the 47k and 1.5k resistors. The TDA2030 IC is affordable and makes a good replacement amplifier for low to medium audio power systems. Incidentally, it is speaker efficiency that determines how "loud" your music is. Speaker efficiency or sound pressure level (SPL) is usually quoted in dB/meter. A speaker with an SPL of 97dB/m will sound louder than a speaker with an SPL of 95dB/m.